Lumbar spondylolisthesis

Lumbar spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis refer to conditions of the lumbar spine, in which alignment of the vertebrae is impaired. The condition is frequently caused by degenerative changes of the spine, however trauma may additionally play a role. Operative and non-operative treatment methods are available.

Degenerative changes of the spine

Spinal degeneration are changes, which occur at varying speed in every individual as a consequence of the aging of bone and connective tissues. Spinal degenerative changes may lead to nerve compression and loss of function

Low back pain

Low back pain is common and usually self-limited. Health care providers look for the presence of certain "red flag" signs to rule out serious underlying causes of low back pain, including spinal infection or cancer. Low back pain has a high cost to society due to lost days at work and lost income.